What is the effect of field age in connection with flow assurance?

  1. Water-cut increases with time and thus the fromation of emultions
  2. Pressure reduces and deposition is easier. However, hydrate fromation is more difficult because of the lower pressure. 
  3. Boosting may be needed

What flow assurance problems are anticipated during planned or unplanned field shut-downs?

  1. The fluid in the SPS starts to cool down
  2. If the temperature is reduced below the hydrate formation temperature
  3. Wax formation

How to prevent/mitigate flow assurance problems during planned or unplanned field shut-downs?

  1. Cool down time can be desinged to be sufficient for the operator to take remedial actions such as:
    - blow-down to reduve the flowline pressure below the critical hydrate formation pressure
    - if hydrostatic head of liquids in the riser is high flowlines and risers can be pigged and displaced 
  2. Thermal insulation or heating of line and riser to reduce cool-down time.