1. Marine Zones

1.1. Continental Shelf

Distance from the shore: < 200m
Continental Shelf is the shallow seafloor with the moderate gradient that layes near the coast. It is characterized by the flat and easy to interprete geology with uniform soil layers that correlate overe large areas.

1.2. Continental Slope

Distance from the shore: 200 m to 2000 m
Continental Slope is the steep slope between continental Shelf and Continental rise. It is characterized by steep slopes (30 deg), complex seafloor topography, complex geology (slope failures, turbidity currents), large scale errosion features (submarine canyons), little correlation between soil layers and types

1.3. Continental Rise

Distance from the shore: 200 m to 2000 m

  • Gentel slope
  • Limited sedimentation
  • Soft and underconsolitated sediments

1.4. Abyssal plain

Distance from the shore: >5000 m

  • Flat, smooth, limited sedimentation
  • Sediments very soft and often underconsolidated


2. Marine Sediments

2.1. Clastic Sediments

Clastic Sediments are the most common sediments in the marine environment. Clastic sedinments originate from the erosion and weathering of rocks (ingneous, metamorphic and sedimetary rocks). The two broad categories of clastic sediments are siliclastic and bioclastic. Siliclastic sediments contain particles of siliceous SiO2 material which was transported from mountainous regions to the seabed by rivers. Bioclastic sediments originate from the sedimentation of skeletal material of live organisms

2.2. Biogenic Sediments

Biogenic Sediments are quire rare. They are produced by living organisms  e.g. coral reefs, coal, peat etc.

2.3. Authigenic Sediments

Authigenic or chemical Sediments are very rare. are formed by chemical reactions. For example Oolites are carbonate (CaCO3) sands that are formed in tropical and subtrobical tidal shoals and shallow seas. Oolitea are commonly known as Carbonated Sands.